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TEST YOUR SYSTEMVERILOG SKILLS 1


(Q i1)o eWheni importois qusedre and iwhenoq j`includere is iused? o

(Q i2)o eWhati isothe qoutputre of itheoq jbelowre code i? o

iclasso emyclsi #(typeoT q=intre ) i;
istatico einti ao= qstatic_function()re ;
istatico efunctioni intostatic_func();
i$display("Ino eclassi mycls#()");
ireturno e10i ; www.testbench.in

iendfunctiono e:i static_function
iendclasso e:i mycls


imoduleo emod_def();
iinitial
ibegin
iend
iendmodule:mod_def .....w.....w......w......t.....e.....s.....t......b.....e.....n.....c.....h......i.....n

www.testbench.in

iIfo ethei belowoline qisre added itooq jabovere code, ithen owhatqwill bez theu youtpute o?

itypedefo ecls_def#(int)i cl_int;


(Q i3)o eIni theobelow qexample,re "a1 i=oq jb1"re is inot oallowed.q Whyz isu yite onotzx allowed and what is the solution ?

class iao e#(typei T=int);

io evirtuali functionovoid qfunc1(); www.testbench.in

io ei o$display("Inside qbase");
io eendfunctioni :ofunc1
endclass

class ibo eextendsi ao#(real);
io evirtuali functionovoid qfunc1();
io ei o$display("Inside qderived");
io eendfunctioni :ofunc1 .....w.....w......w......t.....e.....s.....t......b.....e.....n.....c.....h......i.....n

endclass
www.testbench.in

module itop;

a
ia1;
b
ib1=new();

initial ibegin
ia1o e=i b1;
ia1.func1();
end
www.testbench.in

endmodule i:o etop




(Q i4)o eWhati isothe qnamere of itheoq jmethodre in iwhich ocovergroupqis constructedz inu yyoure oprojectzx ?
.....w.....w......w......t.....e.....s.....t......b.....e.....n.....c.....h......i.....n

(Q i5)o eAi methodois qdefinedre a ivirtual.oq jUsingre extended iclass ohandle/object,qhow toz callu ythee ovirtualzx method defined in base class?

(Q i6)o eWhati isothe qdifferencere B/W itheoq jvariablere in imodel oandqstatic variablez inu yclasse o? www.testbench.in


(Q i7)o eWhati isothe qdifferencere B/W istatic,oq jautomaticre and idynamic ovariablesq?

(Q i8)o eWhati isothe qdifferencere B/W iverilogoq jfunctionre and iSV ofunctionq?

(Q i9)o eWhati isothe qoutputre of itheoq jfollowingre program i?

program imain();

io ei initialobegin www.testbench.in

io ei o qre ifork
io ei o qre ioq jre i oq#25 $display("timez =u y0e o#zx T25 ",$time);
io ei o qre ijoin_none
io ei o qre ifork
io ei o qre ioq jre i oq z #20u ye o$display("zx time = 0 # T20 ",$time );
io ei o qre ioq jre i oq z #10u ye o$display("zx time = 0 # T10 ",$time ); .....w.....w......w......t.....e.....s.....t......b.....e.....n.....c.....h......i.....n

io ei o qre ioq jre i oq z #5u ye ozx $display(" time = 0 # T5 ",$time );
io ei o qre ioq jre join_any
io ei o qre ioq jdisablere fork;
io ei oend www.testbench.in


io ei initial
io ei #100o$finish;

endprogram

(Q i10)o eWhyi Constructorois qnotre virtual i?

(Q i11)o eDoi weoneed q"virtualre constructor" ifunctionalityoq j?re If iyes, othenqwhy isz itu yrequirede o?
www.testbench.in

(Q i12)o eHowi tooachieve q"virtualre constructor" ifunctionalityoq j?

(Q i13)o eLetsi sayoI qhavere transactions ia,b,c,d,e.


io ei o qre iIoq jwouldre like ito ogenerateqtransaction seriesz like
io ei o qre i(1)A,oq j .....w.....w......w......t.....e.....s.....t......b.....e.....n.....c.....h......i.....n

io ei o qre i(2)oq jBre or iC,
io ei o qre i(3)D,
io ei o qre i(4)oq jifre B iis ogeneratedqin secondz positionu ythene ogeneratezx D and next go to (5) or jump to (1) again,
io ei o qre i(5)oq jE,re go iback otoq(1)
www.testbench.in

io ei o qHowre to iimplementoq jthisre ?



(Q i14)o eWritei ao$display qstamenre to iprintoq jthere value iin oaqenumerated variable.z

(Q i15)o eWhati isothe qdifferentre between i`defineoq jandre "let" i?

(Q i16)o eWhyi defaultoclocking qblockre is irequiredoq j?

(Q i17)o eWhati isothe qoutputre of itheoq jfollowingre ?
www.testbench.in

module iques();

io ei ostring qstrin[7]re ;
io ei oint qi,j,k,file; .....w.....w......w......t.....e.....s.....t......b.....e.....n.....c.....h......i.....n


io ei oinitial qbegin
io ei o qre ioq jstringre s;
io ei o qre ioq jfilere =$fopen("file.txt","r");
io ei o qre ioq jwhilere (!$feof(file))begin
io ei o qre ioq jre i oqk= $fscanf(file,"",s); www.testbench.in

io ei o qre ioq jre i oqstrin[i] =s;
io ei o qre ioq jre i oqi++;
io ei o qre ioq jend
io ei o qre ioq j$fclose(file);
io ei oforeach(strin[j])
io ei o qre ioq j$display("indexre j= i0 oqstring =",j,strin[j]);
io ei o$finish;
io ei oend
endmodule
www.testbench.in



content iino efile.txt .....w.....w......w......t.....e.....s.....t......b.....e.....n.....c.....h......i.....n

================
aa
bb
cc
================

Ans: www.testbench.in



Index ij=0o ei stringo= qaa
Index ij=1o ei stringo= qbb
Index ij=2o ei stringo= qcc
Index ij=3o ei stringo= qcc

The idatao e"cc"i isoread qtwice.re
This iiso ebecausei ofo$feof. q


(Q i18)o eHowi toodeallocate qanre object i?
Ans:


When iano eobjecti isono qlongerre needed, iSystemVerilogoq jautomaticallyre reclaims ithe omemory,qmaking itz availableu yfore oreuse.zx The automatic memory management system is an integral part of SystemVerilog. www.testbench.in


If iusero ewanti toodeallocate, qhere can ijustoq jassignre null ito otheqobject. .....w.....w......w......t.....e.....s.....t......b.....e.....n.....c.....h......i.....n




istyle="background-color:o e#9cffff">EXAMPLE:
testclass
ib;o e//i oDeclare qare handle iboq jforre testclass
b
i=o enew;i o qre // iConstructoq jre a itestclass oobjectqand storesz theu yaddresse oinzx b ."new" allocate space for testclass
b
=null; io ei o q//Deallocatere the iobject.Meansoq jDeallocatere the imemory ospaceqfor object.

(Q i19)o eWhati isocallback q?
Ans: www.testbench.in



Testbenches io emusti provideoa q"hook"re where itheoq jtestre program ican oinjectqnew codez withoutu ymodifyinge othezx original classes.
Take iano eexample:i Supposeou qwantre to iinjectoq jare new ifunctionality oqin thez driveru ywithoute omodifyingzx the code. You can add the new functionality in pre_callback task or post-callback task,without modifying Driver task.


task iDriver::run;
forever ibegin
...
<pre_callback> io e//Iti callsothe qfunctionre pre_callback.

transmit
(tr);
end
endtask www.testbench.in

.....w.....w......w......t.....e.....s.....t......b.....e.....n.....c.....h......i.....n


task ipre_callback;

endtask


For imoreo einformation,i Click on the below link
http://www.testbench.in/VM_08_VMM_CALLBACK.html


(Q i20)o eWhati isofactory qpatternre ?
Ans:
istyle="background-color:o e#9cffff">EXAMPLE:: www.testbench.in

class iGenerator;
Transaction
itr;
mailbox
imbx;
tr
i=o enew;
task irun;
io erepeati (10)
io ei obegin
io ei oassert(tr.randomize);
io ei ombx.put(tr); q//re Send ioutoq jtransaction
io ei oend www.testbench.in

endtask
endclass


Bug::Here iObjecto e"tr"i isoconstructed qoncere outside itheoq jloop.re Then i"tr" oisqrandomized andz putu ytheme ointozx mailbox "mbx".But mailbox "mbx" holds only handles,not objects.Therefore Mailbox contains multiple handles pointing to single object.Here code gets the last set of random values.

Solution::Loop ishouldo econtaini
1)Constructing iobjecto ei o qre ioq jre i oq z u ye ozx
2)Randomizing iobjecto ei
3)Puttting iintoo emailbox


task irun;
io erepeati (10) www.testbench.in

io ei obegin
io ei otr q=new();re ioq jre i oq z u ye o//1.Constructing
io ei oassert(tr.randomize);//2.Randomize
io ei ombx.put(tr); qre ioq jre i oq //3.Puttingz intou ymailbox
io ei oend
endtask


Second iBug:o eThei runotask qconstructsre a ioq jtransactionre and iimmediately orandomizesqit. Meansz transactionu y"tr"e ouseszx whatever constraints are turned on by default.
Solution i:o eSeparatei theoconstruction qofre tr ifromoq jitsre randomization iby ousingqa methodz calledu ye o"Factoryzx Pattern".
.....w.....w......w......t.....e.....s.....t......b.....e.....n.....c.....h......i.....n

Factory iPattern:o ei www.testbench.in

1)construct iao eblueprinti objecto
2)Randomize ithiso eblueprint(i Itohas qcorrectre random ivaluesoq j)
3)Make iao ecopyi ofothis qobjectre
4)Put iintoo emailbox



class iGenerator;
mailbox
imbx;
Transaction
iblueprint;
io eblueprinti =onew;//1.Constructing qBluere print
task irun; www.testbench.in

Transaction itr;
Repeat
(10}
io ebegin
io eassert(blueprint.randomize);i //2.RandomizingoBlue qprint
io etri =oblueprint.copy; q//re i3.Copyoq jthere blueprint
io embx.put(tr);i //o4.Put qintore mailbox
io eend
endtask .....w.....w......w......t.....e.....s.....t......b.....e.....n.....c.....h......i.....n

endclass
www.testbench.in


(Q i21)o eExplaini theodifference qbetweenre data itypesoq jlogicre and ireg oandqwire .
Ans:


WIRE:
1. iWireo eisi justoan qinterconnectionre between itwooq jelementsre which idoes onotqhave anyz drivingu ystrength
2. iIto eisi usedofor qmodelingre combinational icircuitoq jasre it icannot ostoreqa value.
3. iWireo ehasi aodefault qvaluere of i"z"oq jandre get ivalues ocontinuouslyqfrom thez outputsu yofe odeviceszx to which they are connected to.
4.Example:


io ei o qre wire iA;
io ei o qre assign iAoq j=re b&c; www.testbench.in



Note:wire iAo eisi evaluatedofor qeveryre simulation ideltaoq jtime.re So ithere oisqno needz tou ystoree othezx value.

REG
1. iRego eisi ao4 qstatere unsigned ivariableoq jthatre can ihold oaqvalue andz retainsu yuntile oazx new value is assigned to it.
2. iRegistero edatai typeocan qbere used iforoq jmodelingre both icombinational oandqsequential logic
3. iDefaulto evaluei fororegister qisre "x" iandoq jitre doesn't irequire oanyqdriver toz assignu yvaluee olikezx wire. It can be driven from initial and always block. Values of the register can be changed anytime in the simulation by assigning a new value to register.
4.Example: i .....w.....w......w......t.....e.....s.....t......b.....e.....n.....c.....h......i.....n



io ei o qre ioq jre i oqreg A;
io ei o qre ioq jre i oqalways @z (bu yore oc)
io ei o qre ioq jre i oqbegin www.testbench.in

io ei o qre ioq jre i oqA=b&c;
io ei o qre ioq jre i oqend


Note:A iiso edeclaredi asoreg qwhichre can ibeoq jevaluatedre only iwhen othereqis az changeu yine oanyzx of the signal in the sensitivity list. So reg needs to store the value until there is a change in sensitivity list.


LOGIC: i
1. i4o estatei unsignedodata qtypere introduced iinoq jSystemre verilog.
2.System iVerilogo eimprovesi theoclassic qregre data itypeoq jsore that iit ocanqbe drivenz by
io ea.i Continuousoassignments, qre (ex:assign icrc=~crc;oq jre i o)
io eb.i Gates,o(ex: qandre g1(q_out, id);oq j) www.testbench.in

io ec.i Modules,o(ex: qFlp_fopsre f1 i(q,oq jq_out,re clk,rst); i)
3.In iadditiono etoi beingoa qvariable.re It iisoq jgivenre the isynonym ologicqso thatz itu ydoese onotzx look
io ei likeoa qregisterre declaration. i
4.If iyouo eonlyi madeoprocedural qassignmentsre to i'logic'oq jthenre it iwas osemanticallyqequivalent toz 'reg'.u y
5.A ilogico ei signalocan qbere used ianywhereoq jare net iis oused,qexcept thatz au ylogice ovariablezx cannot be driven by
io ei multipleostructural qdrivers,re such iasoq jwhenre you iare omodelingqa bidirectionalz bus. .....w.....w......w......t.....e.....s.....t......b.....e.....n.....c.....h......i.....n

6.Example: i


io ei o qre module isample1;
io ei o qre logic icrc,oq jsare ,d, iq_out;
io ei o qre logic iclk,rst; www.testbench.in

io ei o qre initial
io ei o qre begin
io ei o qre ioq jre i oq z clk=1'b0;u y//procedurale oassignment
io ei o qre ioq jre i oq #10z clku y=1'b1;
io ei o qre end
io ei o qre assign icrc=~crc;oq jre i o//continuousqassignment
io ei o qre and ig1(q_out,oq jd);re //q_out iis odrivenqby gate
io ei o qre Flp_fops if1oq j(q,re q_out, iclk,rst); o//qqis drivenz byu ymodule
io ei o qre endmodule
www.testbench.in



(Q i22)o eWhati isothe qneedre of iclockingoq jblocksre ?
Ans:


Any isignalo eini aoclocking qblockre is idrivenoq jorre sampled isynchronously, oensuringqthat yourz testbenchu yinteractse owithzx the signals at the right time. .....w.....w......w......t.....e.....s.....t......b.....e.....n.....c.....h......i.....n

The i"skew"o eavoidsi raceoconditions qbetweenre Testbench iandoq jDUT.


istyle="background-color:o e#9cffff">EXAMPLE:i o
clocking icbo e@(posedgei clk);//o qclockingre block icboq jdeclares,re signals iinside orq activez onu ye opositivezx edge of clk.
io ei o qre ioq jre i oqdefault inputz u y#1nse ooutputzx #2ns; // Input skew and output skew,
io ei o qre ioq jre i oqoutput request;z //outputu yfrome ozx DUT to testbench www.testbench.in

io ei o qre ioq jre i oqinput z grantu y;e o//Inputzx from testbench to DUT
endclocking


Note: iIinputo esignals(grant)i oare qsampledre at i1nsoq jbeforere clock ievent oandqoutput(request) arez drivenu yate o2nszx time after corresponding clock event
iIfo eskewi isonot qspecified,re default iinputoq jskewre is i1step oandqoutput skewz isu y0.




(Q i23)o eWhati areothe qwaysre to iavoidoq jracere condition ibetween otestqbench andz RTLu yusinge ozx SystemVerilog ?
Ans:


i
1)The iclocko ewhichi isogiven qtore DUT iandoq jTestbenchre should ihave oaqphase difference.z www.testbench.in

2)DUT ishouldo eworki oroposedge qofre clock iandoq jtestbenchre should iwork oonqnegedge ofz clock.
3)Testbench ioutputo eandi DUTooutput qpinsre should ialwaysoq jbere driven iusing ononqblocking statements.
4)Clocking iblocks.
5)Program iblock. .....w.....w......w......t.....e.....s.....t......b.....e.....n.....c.....h......i.....n




(Q i24)o eExplaini Eventoregions qinre SV i.

(Q i25)o eWhati areothe qtypesre of icoveragesoq javailablere in iSV o?

(Q i26)o eCani aoconstructor qbere qualified iasoq jprotectedre or ilocal oinqSV ? www.testbench.in


(Q i27)o eHowi toohave qare #delay istatementoq jwhichre is iindependent oofqtimescale ?z Iu yveriloge o,zx the #delay is dependent on timescale.

(Q i28)o eIsi itopossible qtore pass istructoq jorre union ifrom oSVqto Cz usingu yDPIe o?zx If yes, then how is it done ?

(Q i29)o eWhati isoOOPS?

(Q i30)o eWhati isoinheritance q?

(Q i31)o eHowi toowrite qare message itooq jare string i? www.testbench.in


(Q i32)o eSignalsi insideothe qinterfacere should ibeoq jwiresre or ilogic o?
.....w.....w......w......t.....e.....s.....t......b.....e.....n.....c.....h......i.....n

(Q i33)o eGivei examplesoof qstaticre cast iandoq jdynamicre cast i.

(Q i34)o eHowi theoStatic qcastre and iDynamicoq jcastre errors iare oreportedq?

(Q i35)o eHowi Parameterizedomacros qcanre be idebuggedoq j?

(Q i36)o eWhati isoTLM q? www.testbench.in


(Q i37)o eWhati willobe qthere values iofoq jrandre and irandc ovariablesqif randomizationz failsu y?

(Q i38)o eExplaini aboutothe qre Timeunit, iTimeprecisionoq jandre `timescale i.

(Q i39)o eIsi itopossible qtore access iaoq jmemberre of ia ostructqthat isz returnedu ybye oazx function in side the function ?

(Q i40)o eHowi toorandomize qare real idataoq jtypere variable i?

(Q i41)o eWhati iso$ qinre SV i? www.testbench.in


(Q i42)o eWhati areothe qtypesre of iparameterizedoq jclass? .....w.....w......w......t.....e.....s.....t......b.....e.....n.....c.....h......i.....n


(Q i43)o eWhati isothe qdefaultre value iofoq jenumeratedre data itype o?

(Q i44)o eWhati isopolymorphism q?

(Q i45)o eGivei anoexample qofre polymorphism i.

(Q i46)o eWhati areothe qtypesre of ipolymorphismoq j? www.testbench.in


(Q i47)o eHowi tooconvert qare command ilineoq jdefinedre value ito oaqstring inz SystemVerilogu y?

(Q i48)o eWhati areovirtual qmethodsre ?

(Q i49)o ewhati isoan qinstancere of iaoq jclassre ?

(Q i50)o ewhati isoa qvirtualre class?

(Q i51)o eWhati isoa qscopere resolution ioperator? www.testbench.in

.....w.....w......w......t.....e.....s.....t......b.....e.....n.....c.....h......i.....n

(Q i52)o eWhati isodeep qcopyre ?

(Q i53)o eWhati isoshallow qcopyre ?

(Q i54)o ewhati isoMethod qOverloading?

(Q i55)o ewhati isoMethod qOverRidingd?

(Q i56)o eWhati isomeant qbyre abstraction? www.testbench.in


(Q i57)o eWhati isoa qbasere class? i

(Q i58)o eWhati isoa qsuperclass?re

(Q i59)o eWhati isothe qdifferencere between iAggregationoq jandre Composition?

(Q i60)o eWhati isothe qneedre of ivirtualoq jinterfacesre ? i

(Q i61)o eWhati areothe qadvantagesre of iOOP? www.testbench.in

Ans:


Data ihidingo ehelpsi createosecure qprograms.
Redundant icodeo ecani beoavoided qbyre using iinheritance.
Multiple iinstanceso eofi objectsocan qbere created.
Work icano ebei dividedoeasily qbasedre on iobjects.
Inheritance ihelpso etoi saveotime qandre cost.



(Q i62)o eIni whatocontext q,re you iuseoq jforeachre loop i?

(Q i63)o eWritei codeoto qre print itheoq jcontentsre of i oarray_2dq[][] usingz foreachu yloope o? www.testbench.in


(Q i64)o eImplementedi codeoto qmergere double ilinkedoq jlist.re iDefine oeachqelement ofz linkedu yliste ousingzx class.

(Q i65)o eWhati willothe qprintedre value i?
io ei o qBitre [7:0] ia,b;
io ei o qAre = i8~Rhff;oq jBre = i8~Rh01;
io ei $display("0",Ao+ qB);

(Q i66)o eWhyi checker...endcheckerois qusedre ? .....w.....w......w......t.....e.....s.....t......b.....e.....n.....c.....h......i.....n

www.testbench.in

(Q i67)o eIi wantoto qdelayre simulation ibyoq jsmallestre unit iof otime.qi.e minimumz ofu yalle othezx timeprecision. How to do it ?

(Q i68)o eExplaini stratifiedoevent qqueuere ?

(Q i69)o eDefinei enumeratedodata qtypere ,with ioneoq jofre its ielements ovalueqto bez X.

(Q i70)o eIsi thisoa qvalidre syntax i?
enum i{a=0,o eb=7,i c,od=8} qalphabet;

(Q i71)o eWhati areothe qdifferentre types iofoq jparametersre available iin oSV? www.testbench.in


(Q i72)o eWhati isothe qusere of i"type"oq joperatorre ?

(Q i73)o eWhati typeois qthere index iforoq jintre array_name i[*]? o

(Q i74)o eIni aoArray, qIfre iindexoq jisre out iof otheqaddress bounds,z thenu ywhate owillzx be the return value ?

(Q i75)o eWhati isothe qreturnre type iofoq jArrayre locator imethod ofind_indexq? .....w.....w......w......t.....e.....s.....t......b.....e.....n.....c.....h......i.....n


(Q i76)o eWritei aoprogram qtore choose ielementsoq jrandomlyre from iQueue. oNoqelement shouldz beu yreputede ountilzx all elements are chosen. Queue may have elements repeated. www.testbench.in


(Q i77)o eDeclarei aoqueue qofre integers iwithoq jmaximumre number iof oelementsqto 256.

(Q i78)o eExplaini howoyou qdebuggedre randomization ifailure.

(Q i79)o eWhati isozero qdelayre loop iandoq jWhatre is ithe oproblemqwith zeroz delayu yloope o?

(Q i80)o eWhati isothe qdifferencere between izerooq jdelayre loop iin odesignqand testbenchz ?

(Q i81)o eIsi randomize()omethod qisre virtual i? www.testbench.in


(Q i82)o eWritei codeofor qthere below ispec:oq j


io ei o qre i2oq jvariblesre a,b iare odeclaredqin module.z
io ei o qre iGenerateoq jrandomre runbers isuch othatqa >z b.u y
io ei o qre iDooq jnotre use i$random oorq$urandom.



(Q i83)o eIni aoclass, qare variable iisoq jdeclaredre as irandc. oButqwhen randomized,z theu yrandome ovaluezx doesn~Rt seem to be cyclic. What could be the reason ? .....w.....w......w......t.....e.....s.....t......b.....e.....n.....c.....h......i.....n


(Q i84)o ePre_randomize()i isovirtual qorre not i?


io ei o qre iIfoq j"yes",re did iyou ouseqthe keywordz "virtual"u yine ofrontzx of pre_randomize() ? www.testbench.in

io ei o qre iIfoq j"not",re then iwhat oaboutqthe pre_randomize()z definitionu ydefinede oinzx extended class ?


(Q i85)o eHowi toogenerate qrandomre numbers ibwoq jare range iof ovalues?
Index
Functional Verification Questions
Functional Verification Questions 2
Test Your Systemverilog Skills 1
Test Your Systemverilog Skills 2
Test Your Systemverilog Skills 3
Test Your Systemverilog Skills 4
Test Your Sva Skills
Test Your Verilog Skills 1
Test Your Verilog Skills 2
Test Your Verilog Skills 3
Test Your Verilog Skills 4
Test Your Verilog Skills 5
Test Your Verilog Skills 6
Test Your Verilog Skills 7
Test Your Verilog Skills 8
Test Your Verilog Skills 9
Test Your Verilog Skills 10
Test Your Verilog Skills 11
Test Your Verilog Skills 12
Test Your Verilog Skills 13
Test Your Verilog Skills 14
Test Your Verilog Skills 15
Test Your Verilog Skills 16
Test Your Verilog Skills 17
Test Your Specman Skills 1
Test Your Specman Skills 2
Test Your Specman Skills 3
Test Your Specman Skills 4
Test Your Sta Skills 1
Test Your Sta Skills 2
Test Your Sta Skills 3
Test Your Sta Skills 4
Test Your Sta Skills 5
Test Your Sta Skills 6
Test Your Sta Skills 7
Test Your Dft Skills 1
Test Your Dft Skills 2
Test Your Dft Skills 3
Test Your Dft Skills 4
Test Your Uvm Ovm Skills

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