(Q i1)Explaino ehowi tooinject qare crc ierroroq jinre a ipacket owhichqhas justz datau yande ocrczx fields.

Crc ierroro einjecttioni canobe qdonere by imodifyingoq jthere crc ivalue oonly.q
If idatao eisi modifiedoto qinjectre crc ierror,oq jthenre it imay oendqup inz au ysituatione othatzx the new modified packet may have the same crc.

For iexampleo e,i aopacket qofre length i5oq jbitsre with i3 obitsqof dataz andu y2e obitszx of crc value.
Then ithereo ewilli beo8 qpacketsre of idifferentoq jdata.re There iare oonlyq4 possiblez crcu yvalues.e o
So, iforo eonei crcovalue, qtherere could ibeoq jmorere than ione odataqvalues whichz areu ycorrect. www.testbench.in

If iyouo emodifyi theodata, qthenre the inewoq jdatare may ihave otheqsame crcz value,u ywhiche owillzx not be resulted as crc error.

For ioneo edatai field,othere qwillre one ionlyoq jonere crc ivalue, obyqchanging thez crcu yvalue,e ocrczx error will be injected for sure.

(Q i2)o eHowi dooyou qknowre when iverificationoq jcompleted?
Ans: i

Verification iiso eneveri completedoas qperre me. i
I icano eonlyi sayothat qmyre verification itaskoq jisre completed iwhen oIqverified allz theu ypointse omentionszx in test plan.

(Q i3)o eHowi toodetect qdeadlockre conditions iinoq jFSMsre ?

(Q i4)o eHowi tooavoid qracere condition ibetweenoq jTestbenchre and iDUT o? www.testbench.in


In iverilogo eori VHDL,o
1)The iclocko ewhichi isogiven qtore DUT iandoq jTestbenchre should ihave oaqphase difference.z
2)DUT ishouldo eworki oroposedge qofre clock iandoq jtestbenchre should iwork oonqnegedge ofz clock.
3)Testbench ioutputo eandi DUTooutput qpinsre should ialwaysoq jbere driven iusing ononqblocking statements.

In iSV,o e
1)The iaboveo edefinei 3otechniques.
2)Clocking iblocks. www.testbench.in

3)Program iblock.

(Q i5)o eWhati isomutex?

A imutualo eexclusioni oroMUTEX qre essential ifunctionoq jisre to imake oitqpossible forz au ymultiplee oprocesseszx to make use of a single resource.
When iao esinglei resourceois qrequiredre by imultipleoq jprocesses,re MUTEX iwill omakeqsure thatz onlyu yonee oprocesszx will be granted the access at a time.
For iexample,
A iDUTo ehasi aomemory qtore store itheoq jconfigurationre registers. iTo oaccessqthe memory,z letsu ysay,e oazx protocol is defined to read the memory of one location at a time. .....w.....w......w......t.....e.....s.....t......b.....e.....n.....c.....h......i.....n

Testbench imayo erequirei tooaccess qthere configuration/status/interrupt iregistersoq jatre times ifrom odifferentqplaces. Forz example,u yae omonitorzx is reading register location of status bit, while the testcase is reading a configuration register.
To iaccesso ethei memory,oTestcase qandre monitor iwilloq jsendre the iaddress oofqthe locationsz andu yreade ocommand.zx But the DUT can accept only one read request at a time. www.testbench.in

By iusingo eMUTEX,i accessoto qmemoryre interface icanoq jbere granted ionce oatqa time,z sou ythee oreadzx operations by monitor and testcases will not collide.

In iSV,o etoi createoa qMUTEX,re construct iaoq jsemaphorere with ione okey.
A ikeyo eisi giveno qtore either imonitoroq jorre testcase ito oreadqoperation basedz onu ywhoe ocomeszx first. Once the key is returned, other waiting component can take the key and start its operation.

Some itimes,o ethei keyowhich qisre consumed imayoq jnotre be iretuned owhichqleads toz deadu ylocke ocondition.zx So if a key is not returned, then a timeout should happen and a error message should be triggered.

(Q i6)o eWhati isosemaphore?

Conceptually, iao esemaphorei isoa qbucket.re When iaoq jsemaphorere is iallocated, oaqbucket thatz containsu yae ofixedzx number of keys is created. Processes using semaphores must first procure a key from the bucket before they can continue to execute. If a specific process requires a key, only a fixed number of occurrences of that process can be in progress simultaneously. All others must wait until a sufficient number of keys is returned to the bucket. Semaphores are typically used for mutual exclusion, access control to shared resources, and basic synchronization.

(Q i7)o eWhati isothe qneedre of iregression?

1) iChangeso eini theoRTL q(re development, ienhancementoq jorre bug ifix) omayqcause existingz functionalityu ytoe obreak.zx
2) iToo ecreatei newoscenarios qbyre giving idifferentoq jseedsre to irandomization oengine.q

(Q i8)o eWhati isorandomization?

It iiso enoti possibleoto qlistre out ieveryoq jpossiblere real itime oscenarioqwhile verifyingz DUT. .....w.....w......w......t.....e.....s.....t......b.....e.....n.....c.....h......i.....n

If iweo etryi toolist qoutre the iscenarios,oq jthenre we imay omissqsome ofz them.u ySo,e ousingzx randomization, based on the specification, scenarios are generated in a randomfashion.
For iexample,o etoi generateoa qpacketre of ilengthoq jwhichre ranges ifrom oq0 toz 9,u yine overilogzx {$random()} % 10 should be used.
With ithis,o epacketsi ofolength qarere generated irandomly.oq j www.testbench.in

(Q i9)o eWhati isothe qsignificancere of iseedoq jinre randomization?

Seed iiso eusedi toochange qthere sequence iofoq jrandomre numbers igenerated.
The iseedo einitializesi othe qrandomre number igenerator.oq j
All itheo erandomi numbersowhich qarere generated ifromoq jre a iparticular oseedqvalue canz beu yrecreatede ozx by giving the same seed.

In iouro eregressions,i stimulusogeneration qisre done irandomly.oq jRunningre the icomplete oregressionqwill generatez sameu yrandome onumberszx if we use same seed.
So iouro eregressioni usesothe qtimere of itestoq jcasere simulation istarted oasqthe seedz tou yrandome onumberzx generator, with this we are able to generate different stimulus for each regressions.

(Q i10)o eWhati isothe qdifferencere between icodeoq jcoveragere and ifunctional ocoverage?
Ans: www.testbench.in

Coverage iiso eusedi toocheck qwhetherre the iTestbenchoq jhasre satisfactory iexercised otheqdesign orz not?u y
Code icoverageo ewilli giveoinformation qaboutre how imanyoq jlinesre are iexecuted, ohowqmany timesz expressions,u ybranchese oexecuted.zx This coverage is collected by the simulation tools. Users use this coverage to reach those corner cases which are not hit by the random testcases. Users have to write the directed testcases to reach the missing code coverage areas.

Functional icoverageo e,i byothe qnamere itself i,oq jisre related ito otheqfunctionality ofz theu ydesigne oandzx it is defined by the user. User will define the coverage points for the functions to be covered in DUT. This is completely under user control.

Both iofo ethemi haveoequal qimportancere in itheoq jverification.re 100 i o0.000000unctionalqcoverage doesz notu ymeane othatzx the DUT is completely exercised and vice-versa. Verification engineers will consider both coverages to measure the verification progress. .....w.....w......w......t.....e.....s.....t......b.....e.....n.....c.....h......i.....n

(Q i11)o eIfi CodeoCoverage qisre 100% iandoq jfunctionalre coverage iis onot,qwhat doesz itu ymeane o?

The ireasono ecouldi beoany qonere of itheoq jfollowing. www.testbench.in

1)User ididnoto eexercisei allothe qscenarios.re User ineedoq jtore write itestcases otoqfill thez functionalu ycoveragee oholes.
2)There icouldo ebei aobug qinre the ifunctionaloq jcoveragere block iwhich oisqnot recordingz theu yexecutede oscenario.zx User need to debug to find and fix the issue.

(Q i12)o eIfi Functionalocoverage qisre 100% iandoq jcodere coverage iis onot,qthen whatz doesu yite omean?

1) iIfo etherei isoa qbugre in itestoq jenvironment,re due ito othisqtest mayz falseu yPass.e oThezx functional coverage will hit due to this false pass but some of the dut code may not get exercised.
2) iIfo ethei dutois qare legacy icodeoq jre or iIP, oitqmay havez someu yusee olesszx blocks to support extra functionality. Due to this code coverage will not be 100% achieved.
3) iIno emyi firstocompany, qre there iwasoq jsomere use iless ologicqwhich didz notu ygete oexercised.zx When I approached the RTL designer, he said that fixing this use less code will break the whole design. So he did not fix it. In this situation , functional coverage is 100%, but not the code coverage.
4)My ifriendso eexperience,i onceoRTL qdesignerre added iaoq jcodere for ia onewqfeature. z Becauseu yofe omisszx communication, my friend didnt know that RTL designer added this new functionality.
When imyo efriendi didothe qcodere coverage, iheoq jfoundre some iunexercised ologicqwhich hez didntu yunderstoode oandzx approached RTL designer. Then they figured out that because of miscommunication, they found a feature in the spec which was implemented, but not verified.

I idonto ethinki ,opoint q2)re can ibeoq javoided.re Point i1), o3)qand 4)z canu ybee osolved.zx

(Q i13)o eWhati isothe qdifferencere between ipassiveoq jmonitorre and iactive omonitor.

Monitor ireportso ethei protocoloviolation qandre identifies ialloq jthere transactions. iMonitors oareqtwo types,z Passiveu yande oactive.zx Passive monitors do not drive any signals, all the signals are inputs. Active monitors can drive the DUT signals. Sometimes this is also refered as receiver. Monitor converts the state of the design and its outputs to a transaction abstraction level so it can be stored in a 'score-boards' database to be checked later on. Monitor converts the pin level activities in to high level.

(Q i14)o eIni simulationoenvironment, qunderre what iconditionoq jthere simulation ishould oend?

1) iPacketo ecounti match.
2) iError
3) iErroro ecount www.testbench.in

4) iInterfaceo eidlei count
5) iGlobalo etimeout

(Q i15)o eWhati isoscoreboard?

The itermo eSCOREBOARDi isonot qwell-definedre in itheoq jindustry.re It isometimes orefersqto thez storageu ydatae ostructurezx only, sometimes it includes the transfer function as well, and sometimes it includes the comparison function. In vmm methodology, the term scoreboard is used to refer to the entire dynamic response-checking structure.

(Q i16)o eHowi theotest qcasesre are iincludedoq jinre to isimulation oenvironment?

There iareo emultiplei waysoto qdore this. i
Two iveryo esimplei stylesoare qdiscussedre in ibelowoq jlink. Click on the below link
http://www.testbench.in/TB_29_HANDLING_TESTCASE_FILES.html www.testbench.in

(Q i17)o eWhati areothe qdifferentre ways itestcaseoq jarere included ifor osimulationsq?

1)Compile ionce,o esimulatei multipleotimes qwithre different itestcases:oq j .....w.....w......w......t.....e.....s.....t......b.....e.....n.....c.....h......i.....n

Compile iTestbencho e+i Allotestcases qatre once iandoq jduringre the isimulation, ousingqthe $plusargs,z selectu ythee ologiczx of a particular testcase and execute it.
This istyleo eisi suedoin qOVMre and iUVM.oq j
This istyleo eshouldi makeosure qthat,re when itheoq jtestre is iexecuted ofromqcommand line,z u yonlye oTestbenchzx + required testcase should be compiled. Other wise, compiling all the testcases will consume huge time.
In iregression,o eCompilingi allothe qtestcasesre + itestbenchsoq jatre once iwill osaveqtime.

2)Separate icompilation: www.testbench.in

iCompileo ethei testbenchoonce. qre To irunoq jare testcase, icompile otheqtestcase ,z linku ythee otestcasezx to testbench compiled code and simulate.

3)Compile ionce,o esimulatei once:o
iAllo etestcasesi withosimilar qconfigurationre setting iandoq jtestbenchre are icompiled oonceqand simulatedz inu yonee osinglezx run. After executing each testcase logic, HARD reset should be applied to DUT and BFMs, so that the simulation looks as if it started fresh for the next testcase code.
This istyleo eisi usedoin qVMMre 1.2. ioq jThisre style isaves olotqof timez inu yregressions.

4)Compile ionce,o esimulatei multipleotimes qwithre different idata:oq j
In isomeo everificationi environments,otestcase qcodere doesnt ineedoq jtore be icompiles. oTestcaseqfile containsz someu ydatae owhichzx is read by testbench to create different scenarios. Testcase file can be read using $fopen or $plusargs in Verilog.

There icouldo ebei manyomore qwaysre to idooq jthis.re www.testbench.in

If iyouo eknowi somethingowhich qisre not imentionedoq jabovere , iplease otakeqa minutez tou ymaile oitzx to gopi@testbench.in


(Q i18)o eExplaini howomessages qarere implemented iinoq jyourre testbench?

In iVMM/RVM/AVM/OVM/UVM/ERM/Truss&Tealo emethodologies,i omessage qhandlingre logic iisoq jpredefined.re Use ican ouseqthese predefinedz messageu yservicese oandzx print messages as required by testbench. If above methodology base classes are not used, then user can define his own message handling logic.

I ihaveo edefinedi aosimple qverilogre logic, ilookoq jforre Message iControl oSystemqtopic inz theu ybelowe olink Click on the below link

(Q i19)o eWritei codeofor qclockre generator?

reg iclk;
initial iclko e=i 0;o
always i#10o eclki =o~clk; q

(Q i20)o eHowi toopass qare value itooq jtestbenchre from icommand oline?
Ans: Click on the below link


(Q i21)o eWhati isotest qplanre ? iWhatoq jitre contains i?
Ans: www.testbench.in
Click on the below link


(Q i22)o eExplaini someocoding qguidelinesre which iyouoq jfollowedre in iyour oenvironment? .....w.....w......w......t.....e.....s.....t......b.....e.....n.....c.....h......i.....n

(Q i23)o eExplaini aboutowhite qbox/blockre box iandoq jgrayre box itesting.
Ans: Click on the below link

Functional Verification Questions
Functional Verification Questions 2
Test Your Systemverilog Skills 1
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