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QUEUES




A queue is a variable-size, ordered collection of homogeneous elements. A Queue is analogous to one dimensional unpacked array that grows and shrinks automatically. Queues can be used to model a last in, first out buffer or first in, first out buffer. Queues support insertion and deletion of elements from random locations using an index. Queues Can be passed to tasks / functions as ref or non-ref arguments. Type checking is also done.



Queue Operators:



Queues and dynamic arrays have the same assignment and argument passing semantics. Also, queues support the same operations that can be performed on unpacked arrays and use the same operators and rules except as defined below:


int q[$] = { 2, 4, 8 };
int p[$];
int e, pos;
e = q[0]; // read the first (leftmost) item
e = q[$]; // read the last (rightmost) item
q[0] = e; // write the first item
p = q; // read and write entire queue (copy)
q = { q, 6 }; // insert '6' at the end (append 6)
q = { e, q }; // insert 'e' at the beginning (prepend e)
q = q[1:$]; // delete the first (leftmost) item
q = q[0:$-1]; // delete the last (rightmost) item
q = q[1:$-1]; // delete the first and last items
q = {}; // clear the queue (delete all items)
q = { q[0:pos-1], e, q[pos,$] }; // insert 'e' at position pos
q = { q[0:pos], e, q[pos+1,$] }; // insert 'e' after position pos

Queue Methods:



In addition to the array operators, queues provide several built-in methods. They are:

The size() method returns the number of items in the queue. If the queue is empty, it returns 0.
The insert() method inserts the given item at the specified index position.
The delete() method deletes the item at the specified index.
The pop_front() method removes and returns the first element of the queue.
The pop_back() method removes and returns the last element of the queue.
The push_front() method inserts the given element at the front of the queue.
The push_back() method inserts the given element at the end of the queue.




EXAMPLE
module queues;
byte qu [$] ;

initial
begin
qu.push_front(2);
qu.push_front(12);
qu.push_front(22);
qu.push_back(11);
qu.push_back(99);
$display(" %d ",qu.size() );
$display(" %d ",qu.pop_front() );
$display(" %d ",qu.pop_back() );
qu.delete(3);
$display(" %d ",qu.size() );
end
endmodule
RESULTS :
5
22
99


Dynamic Array Of Queues Queues Of Queues


EXAMPLE:
module top;
typedef int qint_t[$];
// dynamic array of queues
qint_t DAq[]; // same as int DAq[][$];
// queue of queues
qint_t Qq[$]; // same as int Qq[$][$];
// associative array of queues
qint_t AAq[string]; // same as int AAq[string][$];
initial begin
// Dynamic array of 4 queues
DAq = new[4];
// Push something onto one of the queues
DAq[2].push_back(1);
// initialize another queue with three entries
DAq[0] = {1,2,3};
$display("%p",DAq);
// Queue of queues -two
Qq= {{1,2},{3,4,5}};
Qq.push_back(qint_t'{6,7});
Qq[2].push_back(1);
$display("%p",Qq);
// Associative array of queues
AAq["one"] = {};
AAq["two"] = {1,2,3,4};
AAq["one"].push_back(5);
$display("%p",AAq);
end

endmodule : top

RESULTS:

'{'{1, 2, 3}, '{}, '{1}, '{}}
'{'{1, 2}, '{3, 4, 5}, '{6, 7, 1}}
'{one:'{5}, two:'{1, 2, 3, 4} }


Index
Introduction
Data Types
Literals
Strings
Userdefined Datatypes
Enumarations
Structures And Uniouns
Typedef
Arrays
Array Methods
Dynamic Arrays
Associative Arrays
Queues
Comparison Of Arrays
Linked List
Casting
Data Declaration
Reg And Logic
Operators 1
Operators 2
Operator Precedency
Events
Control Statements
Program Block
Procedural Blocks
Fork Join
Fork Control
Subroutines
Semaphore
Mailbox
Fine Grain Process Control

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